The Bircher-Benner Clinic has welcomed patients like Tsar Nicolas II, Sir Stafford Cripps (former UK Chancellor of the Exchequer), Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir, Tunisia President Habib Bourguiba, Rainer Maria Rilke, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Geza Anda, Yehudi Menuhin, Helena Rubinstein and many other well-known figures. Among Dr Bircher-Benner's friends were Dr and pedagogue Maria Montessori, Dr Auguste Forel, and Sigmund Freud (whom he viewed critically after his very different interpretation of the Oedipus complex, in his book “Der Menschenseele Not” (The pain of the soul), psychiatrist C.G. Jung and the Swiss poet Carl Spitteler. In his capacity of doctor researcher engaged in ethics, from a human and scientific point of view, Dr M. Bircher-Benner discovered the considerable effect of the raw vegetable s vital diet. In 1905 he published his first dietetic theory, which was well received.